You may have killed only the first pixel. Cut that one away, resolder power, ground and data and connect the strip, as recommended. Use a proper power supply. The Vin pin is not a power output.
4. Neopixel are 5V devices, 3.0V to 3.3V signals may not be read correctly.
I did a project with 44 WS2182Bs, 0.1uF caps. No 1000uF cap, no resistors, 3 foot wires from Arduino to 4 rings, (data line for each), no problems.
If it has 24 LEDs, that's potentially 60mA each at full brightness, thats 1.56A, a normal Arduino can't support that.
You could try unsoldering the first one, and soldering in a replacement part.
When people say "Arduino can't support that" or similar, the point is that Arduinox or the WeMOS D1 Mini that you have - are not power supplies.In particular, the on-board regulator has negligible heatsinking, so while it can support the microcontroller itself, it cannot support additional components powered through I/O pins or from the regulator output pin - "5V" for an Arduino, 3.3V for the WeMOS. (Note that more recent Arduino designs actually do have proper switchmode regulators capable of significant output. )Now the consideration of the relationship of the USB connector and the "5V" pin. On the Nano and WeMOS D1 Mini, this is a diode which is generally rated at 500 mA, so drawing double that current is asking for trouble. While it might be a convenience to use this because the 5 V supply has a mini or micro USB connector, the proper way is to use an adapter board to break out the 5 V power and connect that both to the board via its "5V" pin and the LED strip.
I didn't really specify which microcontroller I have. I have an ESP32-WROOM-32 chip on a DOIT ESP32 DEVKIT V1. I'm not sure if this changes your answer since that is not a WeMOS D1 or an Arduino for that matter.So is it safe to assume that If I buy an adapter board and put a USB connected to a computer in it, then solder the connections to my ESP32 microcontroller and my LED strips, that it should work as it should?Also, do I need a logic-level converter between the LEDs DIN and my microcontroller's IO pins?
I don't think USB from the computer can/will supply the needed current for 24 WS2812Bs.You could check yours, see what the ports are rated for.
You never power an LED string or servo or motor from the Vin pin. If the board and the LED string are both 5V, then just wire them in parallel.
The datasheet for the WS2812 chip says a logic 1 minimum is 2.7V, so a 3.3v logic should (and does here) work just fine.
My laptop has a Thunderbolt 3 USB 3.1 charging port, so I'm guessing it can provide the necessary 1.44 Amps needed to power the LEDs on full brightness when on white.