I think if this was my tutorial I would provide some example circuits (and code) with a specific op-amp connected to an Arduino board.
amplifiers included in most Atmega and Attiny microprocessors
However they dont offer the flexibility in setting gain or offset that an external op amp can provide.
if anyone can think of a PRACTICAL example.
Another example would be filtering and buffering a PWM signal to make a DAC; but it needs higher frequency PWM than standard, so makes the code a bit more complicated (direct access to registers).
Explain that for low distortion across the audio bandwidth the gain-bandwidth product needs to be in the tens of MHz (this confuses many as they don't realize that is traded for linearity).
Suggest using a comparator chip for a comparator function...
Comparators are an important part of an ADC converter. For many reasons op amps dont make great comparators, and its better where possible to use a purpose built comparator.
For instance most audio opamps have back-to-backdiodes across the inputs to protect the input transistors from transients demolishing their noise performance.
but this circuit uses the "short circuit current" - so the voltage across the device needs to be kept at zero.
uAmps = (mVolts * 1000 ) / rFeedback;
There are different ways of detecting this, and you CAN measure the voltage generated; but this circuit uses the "short circuit current" - so the voltage across the device needs to be kept at zero.
I checked the data sheet for the LM4562 (which I may well add to my list ) but could not find any reference to input protection. Do you mean transients outside their CM range or supply range?
Without getting technical about the operation of a photodiode I think it would be difficult to explain further.
Thanks Mark - very interesting. None of the IC's I have tested have that feature so it must just be audio amps. It would prevent some of the applications eg sine or triangle oscillator from functioning properly.
Some opamps have phase-reversal when the inputsare near the rails,
On balance I think it would get too complicated to explain and detract from the thread, so I guess the comparator is out again - and staying out.