About phase delay circuit

I'm planning to make ultrasonic transducer that can changing ultrasonic dircttion that explained on the picture.

The problem is making phase delay circuit(Xmark box)
I tried to make it with low pass filter with computer plogram but ploblem is occured(signal is distorted or almost 0 voltage.)

Is there any way to solve this?

So the Arduino is generating the ultrasonic signal which I presume is actually a square wave?

Are you using a timer or code to generate the signal? If code, then the necessary delays can be generated in code. You would need one piece of code for each slew direction.

I'm using spi signal in arduino pin that showed square wave in picture
and controlled each of it with delay circuit or something with arduino signal

A serial-in parallel-out shift register can be used for delaying a serial signal, if that is what you mean.

What I think you want to do:
Rising edge of the incoming wave is detected.
At time 0 output 1 goes high.
At time x output 2 goes high.
At time 2x output 3 goes high.
At time 3
x output 4 goes high.

Upon falling edge: the same but then outputs have to be set low.

This should be perfectly doable. I like the shift register idea. That should do great here. I'd want to use interrupts: an interrupt that is triggered by the incoming rising/falling edges (pin change or external, both will do), and a timer interrupt.
Rising edge: write a 1 to the shift register (first output).
Then based on the timer: write three more 1s to the register, based on the phase delay.
Falling edge: start to write zeros, same way.
This way you can even handle overlapping waves easily, and have a virtually unlimited number of outputs with the delayed phase. The moment the new edge is detected, simply start counting again.