About sense particles on a ground

Hi,

I’m a student. I’d like to make a robot which cleans ground but I don’t know where I will start. I need a sensor which senses particles or oddments on ground. I researched shopping websites and I didn’t manage to find a sensor specifically about it. İf I use vibration sensor, when the wheels are gone on of the particles, will the sensor work?

How big are the objects that you want to detect and what are they made of ?

If the floor is hard then 'rolling resistance' will give you a good idea of how much dirt there is.
For a practical demonstration try using a skateboard on a clean floor vs a dirty floor. Measure the force required to move it at a constant speed.

Actually, I want to make an autonomic vacuum cleaner. İt may be a hard project for first project. For now I think detect particles which are like biscuit crumbs.

Actually, I want to make an autonomic vacuum cleaner

Then why bother to detect particles on the floor ? Just clean the entire floor

Think about how you determine if a vacuum cleaner is picking up “stuff”, you hear the “stuff” hitting the beater or tubing walls or if it picking up lots of “stuff” the RPM of the motor usually declines due to the additional work. So maybe the approach is to listen to it.

High-res 3D computer vision may work. Make sure you program the computer interpreting the images to ignore bumps, cracks and other irregularities in the floor that belong there.

Gonna require a whole lot more computing horsepower than an Arduino can even dream about.