Adding Friction to Shaft in Rotation (for encoder)

Hello, I am doing a project in which I have an encoder (ky-040), I would like that when a signal arrives to the arduino it makes resistance to the rotation of the encoder shaft.

I don't know what hardware to use to make it more difficult to rotate the shaft, I would like to feel that it is more difficult to turn the axle. (I'd like it to be somewhat noticeable but still be able to rotate without any problem).
I would like to know if someone can give me an idea or a design to do it. I can't think how I could do it, with a motor...?

Try using an iron disc fitted on the axle and an electromagnet affecting the disc.

You can't just purchase such a device. Are you capable of creating such a device, both mechanically and electrically?

I thought to use a piston (or motor) that push a break pad (a small one) against the axle. Can that be a solution ?

Maybe with a servo?

Yes, i mean a servo with a break pad. I will need to try