So I hacked a USB joystick, and i found out that the sticks are just potentiometers, now if i want to input the voltage between the voltage divider into the analog input, do i need to use a current limiting resistor, because USB provides 500 mA of current, would this 500 mA enter the analog pin and damage the pin ?
No. Unless you have some big inductor in the circuit.
An analog input consumes almost no current.
You just need to make sure the voltage is between 0 and 5 V ( or 3.3 V for low voltage arduino ).
because USB provides 500 mA of current, would this 500 mA
It CAN supply UP TO 500mA it does not supply 500mA.
Look up ohms law, that will tell you how much current will flow given any voltage across any resistor.