I think you'd have a lot more luck going with either a Teensy 3.5 or a Teensy 3.6. They both are extremely fast (120MHz and 180MHz respectively), have 16bit ADCs, and all sorts of cool stuff.
I've seen a few projects that successfully use Teensys for audio projects, but I don't know about I2S.
To be honest, though, you might want something even faster. I remember getting a 2KHz sample rate when doing datalogging on a Teensy 3.5 once. Not even close to 44KHz. You might still consider looking into Teensies, though.
Thank you, if without SD card, can I use UART or other serial ports to log audio data on a desktop PC? I tried with an UART port but I found that due to the fact UART port has a slight difference in baud rate in RX&TX, the audio data suffered from distortions, especially high frequency audio signal.