Hello, I would like to know if it is possible in some way to detect objects with Arduino, using the ESP32 device, without involving python or any other language or technology.
Yes, the ESP32 has an internal hall effect sensor. I've used it to detect a magnet without any other hardware attached.
You can attach a camera, and write your own image detection software. That is a highly advanced programming project. You would need years of experience coding, to write it. But if you don't use any language at all, you would need to program the ESP32 in machine language. That would probably take most programmers several years to complete, working full time.
The existing factory firmware on the ESP32 certainly could not do this.
No, not possible.
Why not use Python?
It is possible to run TensorFlow Lite, KNN and LR ML algorithms on a ESP32 to detect objects. KNN and LR do not require Python to create training models. Python is used to create Tensors.