Arduino car

Hello,
I'm 17 years old and I live in The Netherlands. (Sorry if my English is bad.)
Because next year is my last on high school, I have to make an "PWS/Profielwerkstuk". A PWS is a sort of research essay where I have to come up with my own research and make an essay about it. I want to make a small version of an autonomous car. A teacher told me that the best way to do this, is using an Arduino and some components.
So I want to make a small car with an Arduino that can drive between two lines, one dotted line and one continuous line.(It has to be able to make turns.) I've decided to use special MDF boards and draw/paint a road on it.
After the car can drive between these lines I would like it to avoid stationary objects like small cars.
I want to accomplish this by using an Arduino with a car chassis like this: http://www.dx.com/p/smart-robot-car-chassis-kit-for-arduino-transparent-yellow-152984#.VaPHmPl_t8E
And for the sensors I would like to use an ultrasonic sensor and if possible a camera module. (I don't want to use a Lego Mindstorm line follower related to the costs.) I would use the camera to see these lines.
My question is, is this possible and what parts do I need to make the car drive and use the information he gets from the sensors to drive between these lines? (I'm not very technical.) And what kind of Arduino do I need? (I've heard that an Arduino Uno is useful for a small car.)

Thanks in advance for your time and effort

My question is, is this possible

Making a line-following/line-detecting robot is. Doing so with a camera is not.

what parts do I need to make the car drive

Motors, batteries, and a motor driver shield.

And what kind of Arduino do I need? (I've heard that an Arduino Uno is useful for a small car.)

It is.

If you have choices as to how the lines are drawn, detecting solid lines, for following or avoiding, is far easier than detecting dashed lines.

Thank you for your answer.

I have to pay for it myself and an Lego line follower is very expensive so I can't use that. Is there maybe an other way to make it detect the lines than to use a camera?
Maybe a RGB color scanner so that i can distinguish white from black and green?
Why can't I use a camera? I've read about Arduino cars with camera's on it. A module like this one: http://www.dx.com/p/ov7670-300kp-vga-camera-module-for-arduino-147742#.VaPiffl_t8E
Someone also told me that you should have a bridge for the Arduino to make it drive backwards and control the rotation/driving speed from the car?

No, I don't really have a choice because the scale model of the road has to look like a real road, and most of the roads here have a dotted line in the middle.

Thank you for responding

Is there maybe an other way to make it detect the lines than to use a camera?

Yes. An array of light sensors, typically 5, can be used to detect a line. If the middle sensor's value is less than (or more than, depending on the line and background colors) the other middle sensors values, the robot is on the line. If not, the robot has veered off. Which direction and how far depends on the relative values of the 5 sensors.

Why can't I use a camera?

Because processing the image from the camera requires more memory than the Arduino has.

Someone also told me that you should have a bridge for the Arduino to make it drive backwards and control the rotation/driving speed from the car?

The term is h-bridge. And, yes, you need one.

I believe Pololu makes a line of sensors light sensor.
Lego cars can be made to follow a line with just 1 - MrsCrossroads was teaching 7th graders to make single sensor line followers, with that annoying drag & drop programming, well before we got into Arduino.

Thanks for responding.

I talked about the light sensors with my teacher/"PWS" supervisor. He said I couldn't use the light sensors like in a Lego line follower because it would be too easy for this essay and we are going to do that next year and so it's not really challenging enough.

So after I heard this is looked for small autonomous cars that use camera's. I found a few that used their smartphone camera or webcam on the car and send the images to their computer to process. Might this be possible? (Because I can't use those line follower sensors.)

If you know another way to make the car see those lines, maybe with an RGB color sensor, photo transistor or photocell? (I don't exactly know how those work).
I've found this sensor and the title says it's a RGB sensor but I'm not sure: https://www.sparkfun.com/products/12787
I'm open for other suggestions.

And sorry it's so complicated.

He said I couldn't use the light sensors like in a Lego line follower because it would be too easy for this essay and we are going to do that next year and so it's not really challenging enough.

It's too easy, so we're going to do it next year, after you've done everything the hard way first. Does that make sense?

Might this be possible?

Yes.

photo transistor or photocell?

That's what is in the light sensors.

I don't see a color sensor as being useful for following lines that are all the same color.

Thank you for your respond.

This PWS has to be more difficult because we have approximately 1.5 years for it and for the assignment for next year with the light sensor we only have two weeks.

Thank you for your time and effort, I will buy the components and start testing with the car.