arduino + communications + receive audio


i've looked through a lot of web pages but I'm still full of doubts even if this system is possibile:

I would like to build a device capable to receive a sound from a "microphone" in the water, correlate it with a precise time which is synched with GPS time (every 1 sec if I got it right from common shields), link it with the lat/long from GPS and then send it wireless to other devices:

can you help me understand which is the best devices and if they can fit toghether ?

arduino board, which one? (YUN or is better to use a "normal" arduino + zigbee?) gps shield waterproof microphone audio shield (do i need an audio shield even if i just need to receive a constant pulse which I can choose ?) magnetometer

the system should minimize the time error between the instant the pulse is received at the microphone and the UTC time from the GPS.

thank you


It is absolutely critical to define the terms "precise time" and "time error".

I suspect you want to locate the point of origin of a sound source in water, which would be very, very difficult to do with hobby-grade hardware like Arduino and GPS shields.