I am new to Arduino and I have a question more than everything to learn a little more and to guide me in this new world of programming with Arduino.
I want to use my Arduino Mega to receive real-time data of more than 10 sensors in Python with serial communication (distance sensors, temperature, gyroscope, accelerate, etc, etc, etc... sensors of that kind that is only receiving information). And I also want to use the same Arduino Mega to control Stepper Motors from Python via serial communication (that is, telling the motors the steps that should travel and the direction of rotation).
I want to know how feasible it is, can I bring me problems? Any advice? Any information that you give me can help me, so I do not feel that I'm walking blindfolded.
The Arduino Mega 2560 is a 5V board, but most sensors are 3.3V sensors. You need a level shifter for the I2C bus, but some sensor modules have those level shifters already on the module.
The most used code for ultrasonic distance sensors block the sketch for some time.
Some libraries turn of interrupts for a short time. That might interfere with important interrupts. You have important interrupts, for example the Serial input.
Servo motors and stepper motors and ledstrips require a lot of current.
With many libraries (for the sensors) or when you code is not perfect, then you can not request data from the sensors as often as you would want. For example the accelerometer and gyro data can normally be captured at a rate of 100Hz, but that will no longer be possible. If you still want to do that, then you have to adapt everything else to make it possible.
Short answer: It is possible with many restrictions.
How are you going to connect everything ? A breadboard can have bad contacts and jumper wires can be broken. That will almost certainly fail with 10 sensors or more. You could buy a prototype shield and solder wires to the shield.