Nothing that I know of out-of-the-box will do exactly this, but there's a couple of options.
I'd probably start off looking at building around something like a MAX7456 to do OSD over the incoming video signal; examples:
Folks have used this kind of thing for FPV. Feed that signal to an LCD that supports an incoming NTSC/PAL signal (an LCD designed to stand alone, rather than be integrated into a project), and you're off to the races. The results probably won't be quite as crisp as your sample photo, though.
Another option would be something like the TellyShield above plus sort of external MUX, again feeding into an off-the-shelf LCD. (I'm not sure what your options are here, as I'm not sure where you're planning on mounting this; keep in mind the problem of driver distraction here, if this is your own car: you may find it difficult to extract meaningful information from the data portions of the display with a full-color animated background.)
These are all just ideas; I'll be the first to admit I haven't done something like what you're suggesting (the gathering and processing of data from OEM vehicle sensors, yes, but video overlay isn't something I have direct experience with).
Is the idea to do a low-tech version of on-board DAQ and display like this?