Arduino Motor Shield Help

Why with an Arduino motor shield and a Stepper motor m1233032 the delay can’t is under 2 milliseconds??

Because that is a large low-impedance bipolar stepper motor taking 2.5A rms (3.5A
peak) requiring a constant-current chopper-drive controller to perform at speed.

Typically such a controller would run at 36 -- 80V supply to overcome back-EMF and
permit fast current-switching.

Such motors are not designed for constant-voltage drive at all.

There are more powerful engines always be connected to the motor shield?
Can you tell me some?

The motor shield is for driving DC motors, not bipolar stepper motors. If you want
a powerful fast stepper motor you need a current-controlled chopper-drive controller
with a high voltage supply driving a low-impedance motor.

If you only need a slow stepper then a high-impedance motor with fixed-voltage
dual-H-bridge controller is enough.

Perhaps its time to say what you are actually trying to achieve?