Arduino --> Python data type

My question is going to involve something related to Python 3 so I'm not sure this is the place to ask it but please allow me to try:

I am using the following code on a NANO 33 IOT:

unsigned int door1_state = 98; doorStatusChar.writeValue(door1_state);

I'm sending door1_state over to a RPi and attempting to read the value using Python but can't seem to figure out the right approach. I've tried binascii.hexlify binascii.b2a_uu and a number of other functions but can't seem to get it to produce the expected value (98).

Should I Python 3 to be receiving a binary, hex, or ascii data type from the arduino command I'm using?

What is doorStatusChar? what is the range of values for door1_state?

By what method is the data being sent from the Arduino to the Rpi? Serial? TCP/IP?

A complete working sketch would have answered some, if not all of these questions. Code should be posted inside [​​code]​[​/code] code tags.

This Simple Python - Arduino demo may help.

I find it easiest to send data in human-readable form using Serial.print() rather than Serial.write().

If you do want to send the data in binary form then the Python functions struct.pack() and struct.unpack() are used to convert between formats

…R

It’s easiest to interface Python with your Arduino using the compatible libraries: pySerialTransfer and SerialTransfer.h.

pySerialTransfer is pip-installable and cross-platform compatible. SerialTransfer.h runs on the Arduino platform and can be installed through the Arduino IDE’s Libraries Manager.

Both of these libraries have highly efficient and robust packetizing/parsing algorithms with easy to use APIs.

Example Python Script:

import time
from pySerialTransfer import pySerialTransfer as txfer


if __name__ == '__main__':
    try:
        link = txfer.SerialTransfer('COM17')
        
        link.open()
        time.sleep(2) # allow some time for the Arduino to completely reset
        
        while True:
            send_size = 0
            
            ###################################################################
            # Send a list
            ###################################################################
            list_ = [1, 3]
            list_size = link.tx_obj(list_)
            send_size += list_size
            
            ###################################################################
            # Send a string
            ###################################################################
            str_ = 'hello'
            str_size = link.tx_obj(str_, send_size) - send_size
            send_size += str_size
            
            ###################################################################
            # Send a float
            ###################################################################
            float_ = 5.234
            float_size = link.tx_obj(float_, send_size) - send_size
            send_size += float_size
            
            ###################################################################
            # Transmit all the data to send in a single packet
            ###################################################################
            link.send(send_size)
            
            ###################################################################
            # Wait for a response and report any errors while receiving packets
            ###################################################################
            while not link.available():
                if link.status < 0:
                    if link.status == -1:
                        print('ERROR: CRC_ERROR')
                    elif link.status == -2:
                        print('ERROR: PAYLOAD_ERROR')
                    elif link.status == -3:
                        print('ERROR: STOP_BYTE_ERROR')
            
            ###################################################################
            # Parse response list
            ###################################################################
            rec_list_  = link.rx_obj(obj_type=type(list_),
                                     obj_byte_size=list_size,
                                     list_format='i')
            
            ###################################################################
            # Parse response string
            ###################################################################
            rec_str_   = link.rx_obj(obj_type=type(str_),
                                     obj_byte_size=str_size,
                                     start_pos=list_size)
            
            ###################################################################
            # Parse response float
            ###################################################################
            rec_float_ = link.rx_obj(obj_type=type(float_),
                                     obj_byte_size=float_size,
                                     start_pos=(list_size + str_size))
            
            ###################################################################
            # Display the received data
            ###################################################################
            print('SENT: {} {} {}'.format(list_, str_, float_))
            print('RCVD: {} {} {}'.format(rec_list_, rec_str_, rec_float_))
            print(' ')
    
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        link.close()
    
    except:
        import traceback
        traceback.print_exc()
        
        link.close()

Example Arduino Sketch:

#include "SerialTransfer.h"


SerialTransfer myTransfer;


void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(115200);
  myTransfer.begin(Serial);
}


void loop()
{
  if(myTransfer.available())
  {
    // send all received data back to Python
    for(uint16_t i=0; i < myTransfer.bytesRead; i++)
      myTransfer.txBuff[i] = myTransfer.rxBuff[i];
    
    myTransfer.sendData(myTransfer.bytesRead);
  }
}

On the Arduino side, you can use myTransfer.txObj() and myTransfer.rxObj() to copy values to the library’s RX buffer and parse multi-byte variables out of the library’s TX buffer.

For theory behind robust serial communication, check out the tutorials Serial Input Basics and Serial Input Advanced.