Is it possible for the nodeMCU ESP8266 to run with 5 volt delivered by an Arduino Uno. If so, how should I connect it? The ESP8266 uses a micro-USB to power it, and has to get 5-10 volt.
I don't know much about the Arduino Uno, but I have used the Nodemcu and it does take a fair amount of power, I have measured 120 ma. I would want any power supply to be capable of at least 300ma to accommodate peaks. Some folks say that USB ports may not be able to supply enough power, but I have not had any problem using USB.
Connection to the Nodemcu can be made via the micro USB connector using a pin-out adapter or directly to the Vin pin.
I'm assuming that you know that the Nodemcu can be programmed similarly to the Arduino Uno and in many cases the Uno is not needed.