Let me start by saying I already read the troubleshooting page 100 times. It still didn't give me an answer to my problem.
The "blink" example appears to upload successfully (TX and RX leds flash and pin 13 (L) led blinks) but when I have my environment set up and power to my Arduino it doesn't do anything. Here's what I did; you tell me if I'm missing something or did something incorrectly.
I downloaded the Arduino 1.0.5 software on my PC (I'm running Windows 8). The directions on this website say that the installation will fail, but it didn't fail for me (I think that's because I'm running Windows 8). Anyway, after the software download was complete, I powered my Uno via USB. The green power led came on and also pin 13 (L) was flashing orange. I opened up the Arduino app, as well as the "blink" example. Board > Arduino Uno. Check. Serial Port > COM3. Check. Also, COM3 was the only option under the ports tab; I don't know if that's significant or not but I thought I'd mention it. Next, time for the upload. The TX and RX leds flashed and pin 13 (L) was still blinking. I got the "Done Uploading" message with zero errors. Everything's looking good here. I disconnected my Arduino from the USB and began to prep my breadboard. Everything was connected properly. I doubled and triple checked it. I reconnected my Arduino to power and... nothing. =(
Under the troubleshooting page I read up what to do. It says the wrong tool was chosen under Tools > Microcontrollers. When I look under Tools, there isn't even a tab labeled 'Microcontrollers'. My chip is a ATmega328P-PU. Am I missing something here? Just to put it out there I'm a first time Arduino/Circuits/Code user. Please help. Thanks in advance.