Arduino USB to Serial Adapter for Devices

I have been looking into USB to serial adapters such as the following:

I understand that these are for uploading code to Arduino boards that lack a USB port.

Is it possible to use this to receive data from a USB device such as a mouse?

I'm not exactly knowledgeable in the field of communication protocols.

Could anyone help me out here?

Calum

Short answer: No.
Long answer: Usb consists of host and devices.Each device has one or more endpoints with different functions. Normally the usb serial acts as a device with a single endpoint to make a virtual serial connection. A mouse has a different endpoint.
Extended answer: There are USB host shields like thisthat let you connect to almost any USB device. But knowledge of the USB protocol is required and that is not accomplished in a single afternoon