For starters, I'm curious if this language (C++ ?) cares about blank lines and/or indents- sounds like it doesn't, but it does seem to care about capitalization, right? Odd because there are some strange ways of capitalizing certain words and not others...
Whitespace is generically defined as characters that don't make a printed mark on the page: this includes spaces, tabs, carriage return, new line, etc. C++ ignores all whitespace (or more properly, takes all sequential whitepsace and considers it a single separator. Some places you need a separator (like between a type name and variable name in a variable declaration) and some times it's optional (like between a number and an operator.) Anywhere whitespace is required or optional, you can use any combination of whitespace" a single space works the same as 10 spaces, which works the same as a combination of spaces and tabs, as well as any combination of spaces, tabs, carriage returns, etc. All of the following are identical as far as the compiler is concerned:
char c ;
Names are case sensitive - this goes for function names, class names, type names, variable names, etc. The following code defines three different variables, all of which are valid and unique variables, even if some languages that are not case sensitive (like BASIC or Python) would treat them as all the same variable (and complain about duplicate definitions:
Arduino sketches are based on C++. There's a little pre-processing performed by the IDE to make it a little simpler, but the language that you are writing is regular C++. It sounds like you should read up on some C++ programming tutorials - while there are some slight differences in the way you set up a C++ program vs a sketch (like the sketch sets up the main() entry point for you) most of what you read about C++ will turn out to be very valuable.
If you want the definitive word on C++, that would be the book [u]The C++ Programming Language[/u], by Bjarne Stroustrup. He's the creator of the language, and that book is his official description of the language. It's not necessarily beginner material, however, so you are probably better off looking for an online introductory tutorial. But if you are serious about programming, you may eventually want it.
Secondly, more related to what I'm trying to do here- I'm not seeing that it is going to runCurl nor runCpuInfo unless and until I tell it to from within the void loop() section, is that right?
It's valid to put them in setup(), and they will get called. But they will only be called once. So that's valid for a one-time setup type of operation, but not particularly useful for what you are planning on doing.
Instead, you will want the code to be in your loop() function, which gets called over and over again, forever. That code will look for a button press, and if it finds one, it will call runCurl(). You say you have the button press code already working - are you debouncing the button press? When you press the button, it can actually make several make/break actions for a few milliseconds, both when you press the button and when you release it. The Arduino is fast enough to be able to detect these multiple activations. If you are just using it to light an LED, it doesn't matter, because while it will cause the LED to flicker when the button is being pressed or released, your eye won't see it. But your code will probably see it, and may call runCurl() multiple times for a single button press, causing multiple notifications to be sent. If you haven't already, it's worth doing some research on button debouncing.
To really perfect the button code, you want it to the point where you can print out a message on the serial port saying that the button is pressed, and that message is only ever printed once per press, regardless of how hard or soft you mash the button, and how long you hold it. When you have it to the point where it only prints once per press, then you want to add the call to runCurl() where you are printing out that message.
Basically I'm trying to merge two fairly simple tasks, and I know that the serial monitoring bit isn't really appropriate for the finished product, but would love to sort of monitor what the MCU is doing while I tweak this code...maybe that's sort of foolish, not sure.
No, not at all foolish! That serial output will be invaluable while debugging the code. It's very common to add a lot of Serial print statements when developing code, so that you can see what's going on, and hopefully figure out how to fix it when it doesn't do what you want.
The part that will be particularly helpful is your while available() loop where you echo any output from the Process object to the serial port. If the curl command generates any kind of error message, that will let you see what it is. If it doesn't work, it will be VERY hard to figure out why if you can't see the error messages.