edit removed first question since 2 cups of coffee has enlightened me this morning. an hour of sleep was not enough.
also as an aside, is there a clear inglish table showing the "precedence" or heirachy of different variable types in arithmetic? my understanding is on the right side of the equation all the values are temp promoted to the "highest" variable type, then cast back ot hte proper left hand side variable type. seems that in arduinoland this is
float long int byte
however no referece as to where unsigned versions of values land in this heirachy was made clear to me in my search, just a lot of vague and occasionally contradictory forum posts, and a few references to a standard. when I looked up the standard I either only kept finidng a synopsis of it, or really really didn't understand the hybrid code/layweresse language it was written in.