audio buffers ?

hello, very new to arduino / audio circuits (I'm more in interfacing and protocols til today :p), I'd like to figure out the process from outputs pins to speaker.

is it: arduino pins output ====> DAC ====> buffer ====> speaker ?

I 'd like to understand why these buffers are required and if I'd need a kind of anti-aliasing filter or not?

all the best,

Antialiasing is not used on the output - usualy there is just a low pass filter to take out high frequency switching noise. Antialiasing is done on the input side - say you are capturing data with at 20KHz sample rate - then antialiasing filter would be a filter that kept the input frequencies below 10 KHZ (since you need at least 2 samples to be able to recreate a waveform). This could also be a low pass filter.

hi both mate :)

thanks a lot now, it is clear in my head.

if you're interested, I'm currently designing an open-source sound machine:,53074.msg379063.html#msg379063