Basic electronics queries from newb

First, hello. I'm new here, and new to electronics. I'm from a programming background and bought a pre-built Arduino Mega, and intend to use it to learn elecronics.

I also bought a generic "starter pack" of components from ebay, and have had loads of fun so far getting to know the environment, how the board works, and messing with LEDs.

As part of this component pack, i got 5 thermistors. I found a couple of tutorials that say basically the same (10K resistor in series, connect sensor pin between the thermistor and resistor), but the sensor input always read 1023, which i figured meant the thermistor was using next to nothing when compared to the 10K resistor, ie its resistance is way lower.

I googled the numbers on the side of the thermistors to try and find out (NTC10D-11) and found a document with the specs (i can't post links due to being a new user here, but google "NTC10D-11" and it's the PDF result on the sunrom website title "NTC POWER THERMISTORS"). I don't quite understand the column headings in the table futher down the document, but it's talking in ohms rather than kilo-ohms, and amps rather than milli-amps.

Arduino aside for a minute, what do the values in this table mean, and how do they relate to how thermistors and electronics work? eg, are they 10 ohms at 25 degrees C and constantly requires a current of 3A? Or does this current change along with the resistance depending on temperature, and at some temperature other than 25C it requires 3A and has a resistance of 0.275 ohms?

I've googled some stuff on electronics and there's loads on how voltage, current and resistance relate to each other and how to calculate them (Ohm's Law), but i still can't find anything that explains what voltage and current actually are in a way that i can understand what is going on.

Finally, even though the specs on these thermistors appear to be way off the ones from the tutorials, can i still use them with the Arduino? I realise i can pick up 10K resistors like the ones in the tutorials for pocket change, but this is a learning exercise rather than an attempt to actually build anything useful - if i can't use them, i'd like to understand why.

I don't read chinese, so, you'll need to post a link to the document you are referring to.