BLDC Motor Controller with Arduino, keeps broken

I made a vehicle using 4x350W BLDC Hub Wheels with hall sensor. The wheel is controlled using BLDC motor controller and using Arduino UNO for PWM signal (see the attached ). The vehicle is able to run at beginning and stopped suddenly. When I checked the BLDC controller, all four of them are not working any more. This is second time I had this issue. Last time two controllers were broken, I replaced them and test the vehicle again. IN the first 30min, the machine was running fine , and then it stopped with broken controllers.

See my connection map in the attached.

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This is the BLDC motor controller I am using.400W_pinout

It looks like You apply 12 volt to Vin, “the barrel jack”, and the You draw current from the controller 5 volt pin. That can possibly be the issue. The onboard 5 volt converter might be overloaded.
Use a separate 5 volt supply for the consumers is my suggestion.

Thank you, Railroader. It must be the reason. The onboard 12v voltage supply is not working properly after this incident.

I will be using an external 5V supply for the consumers. What about the UNO board itself? Should I continuously use 12V , “the barrel jack” or switch to 5V power supply as well.

In my opinion, I strongly recommend feeding the UNO with 5 volt, into the 5 volt pin as well as feeding the other 5 volt devices that way.
Do some research about Vin, the barrel jack, and You will get the story.
Strange if Your 12 volt power supply got damaged. They usually don’t.

Got it.

Why are you using relays to drive the direction pins? They are logic signals.

Hi Mark,

I am new in this arduino game. What I know is that changing direction requires to connect the direction PIN to GND pin on the motor controller board. So a relay is the device I can think for this task.!

This is the BLDC motor controller I am using.

Hi Railroader,

After spending sometime this afternoon, I believe I found the true cause: one of the motor control board is burned, which caused shortcut in the system circle. It led to overloading the UNO power supply and damaged it.

I wish I can find a better BLDC motor control board. The one I am using now is very easy to break.

See the controller picture above.