First of all you need to distinguish between an analogue interface and a digital one.
With an analogue output, some sensors output a voltage signal, it is the impedance of the signal that determines how long it will travel before it picks up too much interference to be useful. The lower the impedance the longer it will travel. Something like a microphone has a high impedance and so needs an amplifier at the microphone end to not only boost the voltage but also lower the impedance. After that it can travel a long way down a mike cable. Generally amplification at the sensor is a way to boost the distance.
With a digital interface it generally goes so far and then you run into trouble all of a sudden. Anything over 2 meters is a problem for most logic level signals. You can then do the same trick by boosting the voltage and lowering the impedance, some of these tricks have names like RS232 or RS485. This last one uses two lines that go in opposite directions, that is called a differential output. Also the speed it changes matters, the faster it goes the shorter the distance is.
If you want really fast and long you have to go for optical fiber.
As I said it is complex and you could probably spend a few years studying transmission methods.