Post links to datasheets or product pages for all the hardware you mention so we actually know what you have please - we cannot guess this stuff and all details matter typically.
Also a motor shield can't drive a stepper - you use a stepper driver for a stepper. Stepper motors don't have a voltage rating, they are current driven.
No, generally stepper drivers require higher voltages like 12/18/24V. You should never share a motor supply with digital electronics anyway as motors tend to pollute their supplies with massive noise spikes and drop-outs.