I'm posting this in the hope that we can come to a conclusion about the type of SD card module/breakout/shield to use with 5V Arduinos, or whether it even matters what type is used. I see lots of posts about the CardInfo example sketch failing to find the SD card even though everything is wired up correctly. Based on the included pictures of the breakout boards being used, I suspect the problem may be that the design of the board is wrong for use with a 5V Arduino.
I just finished testing Cardinfo using a Nano, which is 5V, and the type of SD module I think is right, and it worked perfectly for both a regular microSD card , FAT16, and a micro SDHC card, FAT32. Here are the details:
The module I used:
Arduino Nano (Banggood), CH340G USB adapter, old bootloader, connected to computer via USB
Connections - module to Nano:
CardInfo.ino example sketch, with CS pin changed from 4 to 10:
// change this to match your SD shield or module;
// Arduino Ethernet shield: pin 4
// Adafruit SD shields and modules: pin 10
// Sparkfun SD shield: pin 8
// MKRZero SD: SDCARD_SS_PIN
const int chipSelect = 10; //was 4
Notice that the microSD module I use has a voltage translator chip in addition to a 3.3V voltage regulator. SD cards are 3.3V devices. The regulator provides the correct voltage to the SD card's power pin, but the Nano pins 10, 11 and 13 output 5V when they go high, and the voltage translator is needed to convert that to 3.3V. Otherwise, you are applying voltage to an SD card pin that is well in excess of the voltage on its power pin, which is "out of spec" at the very least.
The other kind of module simply has series resistors in those three lines, which I assume are there to limit the current that flows when 5V is applied to an SD pin expecting 3.3V. I see a lot of these modules for sale, claiming to be right for 5V Arduinos. But I wonder if these modules are the reason why so many are having problems. Unfortunately, I don't have one to test.
Well, I may be completely off base on this, but I can't think of another reason why we see so many failures with SD cards and Arduinos. But perhaps there are enough people here with experience one way of the other with these modules that we can come to a conclusion. Specifically:
If you are successfully using a module with series resistors in the three lines, but no translator chip, with a 5V Arduino, please post here with details of your setup.
If you have a module with a translator chip, but it still doesn't work, please post here with more info.
And finally, if you understand how/why the series resistor design should work properly, please explain that to me.