Coil Sentry Gun Controlled by Arduino - Feasibility Analysis

Apologies aside, I am a new member of the Arduino community, in all aspects. Nevertheless, I would like to look into the general feasibility of a project I am working on: a coil gun with target detection.

My issue is that I must combine a system that powers induction coils in a timed succession, powered by capacitors. It would work something like the Coilgun_animation.gif attachment I have included. I must also include a targeting system that is based on servo position. Because I am working on this project for a science fair, I am testing this system where a true/false decision is made based on presence of a red, blue or green tile based on a color sensor scanning three predefined sectors. The logical decision process can be reviewed in the Sector Scanning V2.pdf attachment. The central logic system, which will probably be an Arduino chip, which I will need help in choosing, must also power motors in such a fashion as to continually scan the targeting area (See Coilgun Experiment Topdown.pdf attachment.) I must also design a system to launch a new ferromagnetic projectile from a stock when a new target is located.

So what I ask is not so much is this a feasible project nor for one to design my project for me, but perhaps for one(or preferably many) more experienced than I to provide some pointers on where to begin. Please note that I am relatively new to circuitry, and I ask you to try and simply terms to the best of your abilities.

Thank you for your help!
Also, if you find some helpful Arduino tutorials, please refer me to them.

Coilgun_animation.gif

Sector Scanning V2.pdf (8.45 KB)

Coilgun Experiment Topdown.pdf (3.24 KB)

The biggest issue I see is the tracking and target acquisition. It sounds as if a colour camera would be needed and most Arduino boards are just not powerful enough process video (perhaps Galileo could do it, I have no idea). Perhaps Raspberry Pi would be of more use here.

As for the rest, it's been done many times before in various forms and sizes. I would certainly check the Instructables for existing projects and take a bit from each.

The autoloader is the trickiest mechanical part of your concept. Spend some time figuring that one out. I have no idea if you have a workshop and manufacturing experience, but this seems like a possible spot where you'll spend lots of time tweeking and troubleshooting. Think of a simplest design that would work, as little as possible moving parts.