The resistor is at 10k ohm, i don't believe i converted it or anything.

No I said convert the voltage reading into a resistance reading because that table is a table of resistance verses temperature.
So you have a voltage reading across the thermistor, therefore you know what voltage is across the 10K resistor = Voltage across the whole system ( is this 5V ) - voltage across the thermistor.

Now you know the voltage across the 10K you can calculate the current through the 10K resistor V / R = I ( current ), this is ohms law.

The current through the 10K will be the same as the current through the thermistor. So you know the voltage across the thermistor ( your measurement ) and the current through it you can calculate the resistance of the thermistor.
Lay all that out and you will see you can shorten that formula if you like otherwise just go through those steps.

Now you have the resistance you can find the temperature from that table I posted. Just think how you would do it by hand, you would go down the list looking for a resistance close to the one you measured. Then you would look along the line and read the temperature.

You can do the same thing in a program with two arrays. One array has the resistance values in it and the other array has the temperature in it. Your code would search through the first array until you find a close match and then the array index where you found the match in the first array is the array index where you will find the temperature.

For extra accuracy, find the resistance just below what you have and the next value which will be just above what you have. The real temperature will be between the two. Find what proportion your reading is between the two values you have. The proportion can be applied to the two temperatures to find your intermediate temperature. This is know as linear interpolation.

There are other ways of doing this but it involves making a equation that is the same equation as the thermistor follows and applying your resistance reading to that. But to my mind this is more complex.