I am interested in building a MIDI controller, but want to be able to do it completely free of a computer. Is it possible to build a MIDI controller with Arduino, programming and set up, without in any way connecting to a computer?
Could be a little difficult to compile the program for it without being connected.
If you had the program already, could download the .hex file to a standalone programmer to put it on the chip.
The design you could do with pencil & paper. http://www.crossroadsfencing.com/BobuinoRev17/
Try and rephrase your original question, it makes little sense as it stands. You seem to want to build something without using a computer. Where as it seems to me that you want to build something that when you have finished it will not use a computer. Two totally different requirements.