Data Logging using MicroSD to MicroUSB adapter?

I have a MicroSD card to MicroUSB adapter, the same as the one in the attached image.

Is it possible to log raw serial data thag’s being read from an analog sensor in an Arduino to a MicroSD card using this type of adapter? I have an Arduino Zero Pro, so it has a microSD slot to use with the adapter.

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OP image:
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It’s not clear to me if this goes into a Micro SD slot and passes out the data on USB? Or it lets you plug a micro SD card into the USB port of a phone.

If it’s option 2, then you could do it with an Arduino with ‘native’ USB: Teensy, Micro, Leonardo, Due. It would not be easy.

Just get a regular SD card shield or a Teensy 3.5/3.6 which has the SD card on board. Another option might be the OpenLog from Sparkfun.