different types of motors on Window blind systems

Hello,
I would like some help clarifying the different types of motors out there, specifically related to motors that could be used for slow speed, mediumish torque applications like moving a window or rolling up blinds.

On commercial units like these, for example:
http://rollertrol.com/universal-DC-motor-interface-for-motorized-blinds-shades

https://www.somfysystems.com/products/1001617/glydea

They specifically mention “12V DC Motors”. I’m not trying to make my own or anything, but I’d like to understand how these are controlled?

Is there a more specific term for “12VDC motor” that I can google to learn more about how these motors are controlled? What kind of driver components are needed? Is “12VDC motor” different than “brushless DC motor”.

What type of microcontrollers do commercial systems use, and are these microcontrollers much different than how an Arduino would control the motor drive/amplifier circuits?

Additionally, how might you go about getting position information on the blind/window position? So that you’re not driving it open/close all the way every time?

I know this is a long question. I’m just looking for clarification so I can google the right info. Give me enough info to fish with, please.

A DC motor can run either direction depending on the polarity of the applied power... Reverse the connections an it runs in the opposite direction.

You can reverse direction/polarity with an H-driver circuit, or with a DPDT relay (or switch). An H-bridge can also turn off (or switched on & off rapidly for PWM speed control). If you are reversing with a relay, a 2nd relay (or switch) is needed to turn on & off power. (A manual DPDT switch can have a center-off position.)

There can be limit-switches or limit-sensors so the motor stops once it hits the end.

For a blinds application the motor would be geared-down for more torque and lower speed. With a manual control, you can simply stop half way (or at any point). But, to automatically partially open or close, you need some kind of position sensor or rotary encoder, etc. A worm gear would help to hold the position because it's hard (or impossible) to move from the geared-down side.

12V DC motor normally means a brushed PMDC motor - if a motor is brushless you'll see either the word 'brushless' or BLDC.