And as for the uA741, the datasheet states "The device can operate as a single-supply
or dual-supply operational amplifier depending on the application."
Yes, but when used with a 5V single-ended supply, there isn't enough "head room" to do much of anything useful.
The 741 was designed to function with supply voltages more like +/-15 volts. The datasheet has a spec called the Input Common Mode Voltage Range [Vicm], and for the 741, run with a supply of +/- 15 volts, the Vicm is +/-12 volts. In other words, when an input voltage goes below 3 volts + the negative supply rail, then the OP-Amp won't respond to that voltage. Where did I get "3 volts"? By subtracting 15 from 12 = 3. That 3 volt limit also applies to voltages that are 3 volts below the upper supply rail.
So, if the supply rails are: 5 volts and 0 volts, then the input signal needs to be between 5V - 3V and 3V - 0V. In other words, with a 5Volt supply, the 741 can't even see an input voltage.
Also, since a 741 output doesn't swing to "the rails" and in fact, has a best case max voltage swing of 1 volt less than the supply voltage (and worse case of around 3V), that's a loss of 2 volts on the output (because that 1 volt loss applies to the highest voltage swing AND to the lowest voltage swing). So, even if the 741 could respond to an input voltage, when run at 5V, it wouldn't be able to swing it's output much, or even at all!
You need an op-amp that is not only designed with 0 volts as part of it's input common mode voltage range, but also one designed to work at 5V.