Direct communication using Visual Studio (no setup() and loop() wrapping)

I am currently building a 3D scanner and I just bought an Arduino Uno with a Big Easy Driver to control a stepper motor (for the scanner’s rotating plate) and everything is working fine. However, I realized that I would need a way to communicate directly with the device (just like any other serial peripheral out there). Ideally, I would need to do this in real time (without uploading the code) because what I want to achieve is drive the stepper one pulse, take a capture (with my camera), process the information and repeat. In other words, I want the Arduino part to be a “module” in my main C++ program (which will contains some OpenCV for image capture and processing). I am using Visual Studio 2013. How could I do that? Thanks!

Your only option is to write a PC program that "talks" to your Arduino and an Arduino program that "talks" to the PC program.

This Python-Arduino demo illustrates the idea. The same general approach is applicable in other languages.

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However, I realized that I would need a way to communicate directly with the device (just like any other serial peripheral out there).

Serial communication with the Arduino is hardly "direct communication".

Ideally, I would need to do this in real time (without uploading the code) because what I want to achieve is drive the stepper one pulse, take a capture (with my camera), process the information and repeat.

The Arduino is able to read, process, and act on, serial data in real time.

I want the Arduino part to be a "module" in my main C++ program

Modules are software. The Arduino is hardware. Your asking for an elephant to be a suitable substitute for a Rum and Coke.

if you are looking for sending Arduino's sensor data to a mysql database on Windows PC i recommend MysqlIO app for windows