Does the SPIFFS file system require a WiFi network, or can it be used with an ESP access point?

Here are two tutorials that use the SPIFFS file system:

Although, it seems like a WiFi network is required. Is there a way to use SPIFFS and an ESP as an access point (AP)?

This problem stems with seemingly being limited on how many base64 images can be used: Why is an ESP32 web server limited to a certain number of Base64 images?

SPIFSS is an "offline" feature of ESPs, that is, it does not need any communication system, be it wifi, BT, etc.
It just depends on libraries.

It's like having an SD card inside ESP.


Is there a tutorial or example that uses SPIFFS without an external network using an ESP as an access point?

Let's separate things.

  1. Tutorial for using SPIFSS;
    ESP8266 SPIFFS: Writing a file - techtutorialsx
    two . Tutorial using ESP with AP.
    ESP32 Access Point (AP) for Web Server | Random Nerd Tutorials