You have explained the “what” in more detail, but not the “why”, so the suspicion of an X-Y problem remains.
Yes, it is possible, but as already mentioned, there is no quick and easy function for this in C as there is in python. You will need to write quite a lot of code.
Some things to consider:
Can the numbers be more than one digit?
Should operators be applied in strict left-right order, or should some, like × ÷, be automatically given precedence over others, like + - (“BODMAS”)?
Do you want to allow use of brackets/braces to override operator precedence?
Are the numbers whole, or can they have decimal places?
Can negative numbers be used, like “3×-7”?
How will you know when the end of the expression is reached, and the calculation should be performed?