I have a program on my laptop called J.A.R.V.I.S. which is similar to Windows Speech recognition and it can launch .exe files or any file you would normally double click to open. I was thinking that if there was some way to make a .exe file print text to the serial monitor that I could control a connected Arduino with my voice. Does anyone know if this is possible and if so, how to do it?
You can but not with all .exe files. However if you have created the exe file yourself (using some programming language like C, C++, Visual Basic etc) you can include the commands to be sent to your Arduino in the source code itself.
If you want to use voice recognition you can try using required libraries along with processing or some other language with which you are fluent.