Graphic User Interface for Controlling Robotic System

I have previously built a vehicle that operated autonomously using an overhead navigation system employed by one of my engineering design classes at college. Now, I am wondering if it is possible to create an interface to control functions of a robot, similar to how RC cars operate, rather than designing an autonomous craft. The interface would entail buttons controlling the direction of movement for the vehicle. I am familiar with how to create dialog boxes in Java, but the coding required for the autonomous vehicle was my first experience using the Arduino platform; consequently, I’m unfamiliar with how I would go about creating the dialog box itself and performing the actions after a button has been clicked, analogously to adding listeners to the buttons in Java.
I’d appreciate any insight on the feasibility of the program, or other ways of performing the intended functions.

Where will the GUI exist?

If it is on a PC then just use the Java that you are familiar with and get your Java program to send suitable commands to the Arduino.

You could also have a GUI on a phone and communicate with the Arduino using Bluetooth. This Thread or this Thread may be of interest.

Another option might be to use an Arduino Yun and write the GUI (in Python?) as a web server on the Linux side. The Yun has WiFi as standard so any smart phone, tablet or PC with a browser could be the user interface. My EzScrn demo may be of interest.