Help with creating a synth

I am relatively new to electronics and I want to make an analog synth controlled digitally by an arduino. But before I really get started, I would like to see if anyone could help me comprehend this circuit and help me understand the use of the op amp. Triangle Wave Generator

There is a detailed description of the circuit on that page. What are you not understanding?

More information on the Op Amp can be found here: and

I still cant grasp the general concept of op amps... Ill keep reading.

grahamcrackeh: I still cant grasp the general concept of op amps... Ill keep reading.

The general concept of an opamp is in its name: Operational Amplifier. Its designed to perform mathematical operations on analog signals; in fact, that was one of its original uses, as a mathematical component for analog computers (which were typically faster and typically smaller than the room/building sized digital behemoths which they competed with from the 1930s-1950s - though less accurate, of course).


You are off by like 10,000. A typical op-amp has 10^6 gain at 1Hz but that makes no difference. I would try to understand an op-amp with the two "golden rules" and an inverting amplifier circuit. You do need to know Ohm's law to fully understand the rule. The inverting amplifier amplifies signal by a gain and inverts the signal. The inverting part makes no difference on audio signals though.

Maybe it will help if you read some background on op amps.... from an expert.