How Arduino know which pins from a potentiometer connected

Hello Guys, This is my first thread post on this forum.

I’m a beginner on Arduino’s programming. I want to ask a question :

How arduino know the pin of each potensio without describing the ADC pin number.
I have a code below (credit to electrosmash):

Thanks Guys
Cheers :slight_smile:

// Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
// Based on previous work.
// tremolo effect produces a variation in the volume of the signal, by mixing the guitar with a sinusoidal waveform.
// potentiometer 0: controls the speed.
// potentiometer 1: controls the deph.
// potentiometer 2: controls the volume level.
int in_ADC0, in_ADC1;  //variables for 2 ADCs values (ADC0, ADC1)
int POT0, POT1, POT2, out_DAC0, out_DAC1; //variables for 3 pots (ADC8, ADC9, ADC10)
const int LED = 3;
const int FOOTSWITCH = 7; 
const int TOGGLE = 2; 
int sample, accumulator, count, LFO;
// Create a table to hold pre computed sinewave, the table has a resolution of 600 samples
#define no_samples 44100
#define MAX_COUNT    160
uint16_t nSineTable[no_samples];//storing 12 bit samples in 16 bit variable.
// create the individual samples for our sinewave table
void createSineTable()
  for(uint32_t nIndex=0; nIndex<no_samples; nIndex++)
    // normalised to 12 bit range 0-4095
    nSineTable[nIndex] = (uint16_t)  (((1+sin(((2.0*PI)/no_samples)*nIndex))*4095.0)/2);
void setup()
  /* turn on the timer clock in the power management controller */
  /* we want wavesel 01 with RC */
  TC_SetRC(TC1, 1, 238); // sets <> 44.1 Khz interrupt rate
  TC_Start(TC1, 1);
  // enable timer interrupts on the timer
  /* Enable the interrupt in the nested vector interrupt controller */
  /* TC4_IRQn where 4 is the timer number * timer channels (3) + the channel number 
  (=(1*3)+1) for timer1 channel1 */
  //ADC Configuration
  ADC->ADC_MR |= 0x80;   // DAC in free running mode.
  ADC->ADC_CR=2;         // Starts ADC conversion.
  ADC->ADC_CHER=0x1CC0;  // Enable ADC channels 0,1,8,9 and 10  
  //DAC Configuration
  analogWrite(DAC0,0);  // Enables DAC0
  analogWrite(DAC1,0);  // Enables DAC0
void loop()
  //Read the ADCs
  while((ADC->ADC_ISR & 0x1CC0)!=0x1CC0);// wait for ADC 0, 1, 8, 9, 10 conversion complete.
  in_ADC0=ADC->ADC_CDR[7];               // read data from ADC0
  in_ADC1=ADC->ADC_CDR[6];               // read data from ADC1  
  POT0=ADC->ADC_CDR[10];                 // read data from ADC8        
  POT1=ADC->ADC_CDR[11];                 // read data from ADC9   
  POT2=ADC->ADC_CDR[12];                 // read data from ADC10  
void TC4_Handler()
  // Get the status to clear the interrupt to be fired again.
  TC_GetStatus(TC1, 1);
 //Increase the sinewave index and/or reset the value.
 POT0 = POT0>>1; //divide value by 2 (its too big) 
 if (count>=160) //160 chosen empirically
   if(sample>=no_samples) sample=0;
  //Create the Low Frequency Oscillator signal with depth control based in POT1.
  //Modulate the output signals based on the sinetable.
  out_DAC0 =map(in_ADC0,1,4095,1, LFO);
  out_DAC1 =map(in_ADC1,1,4095,1, LFO);
  //Add volume feature with POT2
  out_DAC0 =map(out_DAC0,1,4095,1, POT2);
  out_DAC1 =map(out_DAC1,1,4095,1, POT2);
   //Write the DACs
  dacc_set_channel_selection(DACC_INTERFACE, 0);       //select DAC channel 0
  dacc_write_conversion_data(DACC_INTERFACE, out_DAC0);//write on DAC
  dacc_set_channel_selection(DACC_INTERFACE, 1);       //select DAC channel 1
  dacc_write_conversion_data(DACC_INTERFACE, out_DAC1);//write on DAC

How arduino know the pin of each potensio without describing the ADC pin number.

Sorry I have no idea what this means.

The instruction to read an analogue input contains the pin number to read, so to read analogue input 3 your code is:-

value = abalogRead(3);


How arduino know the pin of each potensio without describing the ADC pin number.

Sorry I have no idea what this means.

I think what he means is that there’s this line in the code:


… but as far as I can see, DAC0 isn’t initialised anywhere.

The code won’t compile anyway due to an array overflow (edit… on Uno)

#define no_samples 44100
uint16_t nSineTable[no_samples];//storing 12 bit samples in 16 bit variable.

What Arduino is this being run on ?

Good thinking.

But if it were an analogue write that was the problem then why is the word potentiometer in the title. You do not feed PWM into a pot.

True Mike, and in the question he says adc but the line I found is dac. Fact remains, his DAC variable isn't initialised, but it's probably not his question.

Who knows?

Stay tuned.....

DAC0 and DAC1 are predefined pins on the Due only, they are true DAC output pins
and there's just two of them. They output a voltage from 1/6th Vdd to 5/6th Vdd only.

They are defined somewhere in the code that you have since Arduino is an open-source
project. Learn to grep through source code if you want to answer such questions

I'm using Arduino Due

Sorry for the questions that aren't clear.

My point is, there are POT initiated with int POT0, pot1, Pot2, which is not in the initiation of the number of ADC. In contrast to LEDs, footswitch, and toggle which clearly given the identity of the ADC being used. How Arduino can work with those POT without initiation of adc numbers used?

POT0 is a variable to hold the result in so it does not have to be initialized.
It is set in this line of code:-

POT0=ADC->ADC_CDR[10];                 // read data from ADC8

It uses pointers to address a structure.

-> (indirect, or pointer, member selector)

You use the selection operators '.' and '->' to access structure and union members. Suppose that the object s is of struct type S and sptr is a pointer to s. Then, if m is a member identifier of type M declared in S, these expressions: