I was re-reading Walter Isaacson's book "The Innovators" this weekend, and was reading about the invention of Pong by Atari. From everything I've read, it was built using only digital logic circuits and zero programming. I also remember reading something from Steve Wozniak's autobiography how he realized he could "rapidly spin" 1's and 0's in a chip and make color output to his TV.
How does a microchip, with no traditional (modern sense of the word) programming, output text and rudimentary graphics to a television?
Looking for a nice, detailed explanation if someone has the time, or can point me to a good resource (tried googling for a while, couldn't find what I was looking for).