How Reading And Writing on a SD Card works? Looking for great resources

I am a Noob, whith no CS background, i started copying and pasting sketches. Now i am studying C language with "Beginning C for Arduino" By Jack Purdum to get some theory.

I am trìying to understand how SD works (particularly using the sdfat library that is the best for arduino).

I found a lot of fragmentated examples, but not a good explanation of how the process works:

My goal is to undestand - How the microcontroller write the information from a sensor to a sd works.

  • KPI of the process (Latency, Speed) and how to measure this metrics
  • What can influence the SD writing process(dimension of the buffer) (string instead of binary informations)

What good resources, youtube videos or link to posts can you suggest for a deeper knwoledge of this subject?

Thanks in advance!