Then change your USB cable. Yes, it seems stupid answer but arduino is a bit sensitive with USB cables or maybe is an USB cable with only power supply, no data transmission, like cables for wireless mouses, for example.
When I use a cheap USB cable I get the same results as you, but when I use a good cablethis is what I get after doing lsusb:
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:8000 Intel Corp.
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 046d:c050 Logitech, Inc. RX 250 Optical Mouse
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 019: ID 0403:6001 Future Technology Devices International, Ltd FT232 USB-Serial (UART) IC
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 8087:07dc Intel Corp.
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 04ca:7017 Lite-On Technology Corp.
I'm not an arduino expert, but I hope I help you.