How to read i2c pressure sensor with arduino (ZSC31014)

Does this formula work for I2C sensors?

Yes, I'am using only I2C ones.

From the sensor link you supplied, you must read more than one value to get the full measurement.

The "Read_MR - Measurement Request" might not work. A test with a logic analyzer to confirm that it works for the ESP8266 is needed. It does not work for a Arduino Uno or Mega: https://github.com/arduino/ArduinoCore-avr/issues/421.

The Read_MR command would be: Wire.requestFrom( i2c_address, 0); but since no one uses that, it might not be implemented in the Wire library.

There is no need to read 16 bytes, 2 is enough.
There are typos in calculation:
wrong: (((100 * (Fbyte * 256 * Sbyte)-81915) * 200)/163838)/9
correct: (((100 * ( Fbyte * 256+Sbyte)-81915) * 200)/16383)/9
for 10 bar: (((100 * (Fbyte * 256+Sbyte)-81915) * 100)/16383)/9