How to receive data from Bluetooth module on Arduino

I have figured out how to send data from the Arduino to another device, but how can I receive that data on a PC/MAC and then manipulate that data, preferably using python? I know I could send txt files and display them using tera term but that isn't very useful since I want to turn the txt file into other files such as pdf and jpg. I am merely using the txt file as a way of transporting it over the bluetooth connection. I am hoping to use the 'rb' mode on python to turn the txt version of another file back into the original file. Also, how do I send the data with parity checks or checksums?