How to reverse AC motor direction

My project:: I am making a bed with 8 AC motors in the base...each motor will give a different angle of rotation...i will also wire in 16 limit switches one on each end of each motor's motion, so that it doesn't keep moving. I am going to use an arduino mega and 16 buttons... which will move that respective motor either clock wise or anti clock wise and will move it as long as the button is pressed then stopped.

Question:: So i want to be able to reverse each AC motor and also be able to stop it. the programming side is done. the hardware side is also done. i can't seem to find a way to reverse AC motor. i just need a switch type thing which has 3 states in it, CW, CCW, and stop. or in other words, on1, off, on2 and ofc that switch has to be programmable by arduino.

My Attempts:: I have thought about using a DPDT relay which will take care of the reversal. but it will keep reversing... i have thought about using a tripple pole tripple throw relay but that is too rare to find... actually i found some images but i couldn't find a seller.

I have thought about VFD but they are expensive considering i would need one for each motor. and since i dont want to control speed or need 3 phase output it will be overkill. i just need the h-bridge inside that circuit. it would be wonderful i could get a schematic so i can make it myself since im designing the pcb for it myself.

NOTE: I understand that i have not provided enough information about motors and that is important so the motors are single phase AC motor 220V probably universal motor...i haven't decided on the motors..but thats the one im gonna probably use. I just want someone to point me in the right direction since AC world is just so new to me.

A single phase universal motor is the term usually given to a series motor. I doubt that would be the type you are using as they are rather high speed motors. Associated mostly with drills, grinders and the like, even then the speed is dropped down via a gearbox. Adding reverse functions to ac motors require modifications to the internal wiring, not a job for a beginner.

Sounds to me a low voltage dc motor with a gearbox and a position encoder would be more suited to a junior member. Easily reversed by applying opposite polarity.

Playing with AC mains potential can be lethal.

To reverse an AC motor, assuming it's not a synchronous motor, you need a DPDT switch or relay to reverse the supply to either the field coils or the armature but not both. To do this you need to get into the internal wiring of the motor.

as per my research i thought the same.. that i needed to get inside the motors.. that is a tedious task... so i guess bye bye to this project.

@PerryBebbington yes that is partly true. the dpdt relay does not have an off state so the motor will always be going clock wise or counter clock wise...cant stop it...have to add another relay possibly in series with motor?

DC motors will be hard to come by... AC motors is all i have available... But thanks for the help guys... much appreciated!

Have to add another relay possibly in series with motor?

Yes, you will. If a relay exists with an centre off position I have yet to see it.

Yes, you will. If a relay exists with an centre off position I have yet to see it.

Forget that, well, forget the second bit...

It depends.... If it's a series wound motor then I guess if you had a reversing device with a centre off position then one such device would be OK. If it's a parallel wound motor then you need 2 switching devices, one in the supply, one in either the field coil connection or in the armature connection, not both. I suspect the motors are likely to be series wound, but they might not be.

manhoosbilli1: DC motors will be hard to come by... AC motors is all i have available... But thanks for the help guys... much appreciated!

Consider using an automotive (Car) windscreen wiper motor, or a window-winder motor ... they are simple, strong, cheap, have gear reduction already so torque is high, run from 12Vdc and can be easily reversed and you can use PWM to control the speed further.

Good luck

PerryBebbington: Forget that, well, forget the second bit...

It depends.... If it's a series wound motor then I guess if you had a reversing device with a centre off position then one such device would be OK. If it's a parallel wound motor then you need 2 switching devices, one in the supply, one in either the field coil connection or in the armature connection, not both. I suspect the motors are likely to be series wound, but they might not be.

see... that is the worst things about ac...so many varieties and types in it.... its almost impossible to assume a scenario.... should have just gone with dc.... don't wanna fiddle with the winding and inner circuitry.... i appreciate all the help even tho im noob at this XD

CharlesDavis: Consider using an automotive (Car) windscreen wiper motor, or a window-winder motor ... they are simple, strong, cheap, have gear reduction already so torque is high, run from 12Vdc and can be easily reversed and you can use PWM to control the speed further.

Good luck

good idea

manhoosbilli1: DC motors will be hard to come by... AC motors is all i have available... But thanks for the help guys... much appreciated!

Are you sure.....DC motors are out there in their umpteen millions. It mainly depends on your application i.e. size of motor required.