How to uderstand if the ATmega328 is broken?

Hello,

I made some mistakes with the wirings (maybe a shortcut) in my project and I started receiving the following message every time I try to load a new sketch:

avrdude: verification error, first mismatch at byte 0x0000
0x0c != 0xfe

Now the question is, how can I understand if the problem is either the flash memory, or the entire ATmega 328 or the entire arduino?

Looking at the loading output file, using the verbose option, I can see that during the loading phase the board communicates correctly the FW revision; i.e.
avrdude: Send: A [41] . [98] [20]
avrdude: Recv:
avrdude: Recv:
avrdude: Recv:
Hardware Version: 2
Firmware Version: 1.16

so it appears that the FW is running properly. If so, where is the problem? Is the flash just unable to be loaded? Or is the arduino broken somewhere else?

Thanks for your help,

galaxy