How to use shift register.

I have searched and can't find good tutorial. I have the SN74HC165N 8 bit shift register. I have 7 segments on my 7 seg display and I am trying to get it to show the number 1. How would one do that? My end goal is to have the shift register display numbers.

Some shift registers are for inputs and others are for outputs.
A 74_165 is used to shift the states of its inputs to the device that controls it.

I guess you need to work on your google-fu a little. My first google search of "arduino shift 7 segment" gave me lots of hits. I do notice that most of the tutorials are for 74HC595 and you have a 74HC165. A quick trip to octopart.com to look up datasheets and I see that you have the wrong type of shift register for this application. Yours is a parallel in serial out, meaning you give it 8 different logic levels on 8 pins and then read it from the chip as 1 byte, typically on 3 pins (latch, clock, data). What you want is a serial in parallel out (so you feed it 1 byte of data using 3 pins and then it outputs 8 logic levels on 8 pins) like the 74HC595.

Don't throw out that 74HC165. It could be useful on another project where you need to poll more inputs than you have pins on the Arduino.

TPIC6B595 is better for sinking current from LEDs. Works just like 74CH595, but does not have the HC's 70mA total current limit.

Here's the short version of a "tutorial"

digitalWrite (RCLKpin, LOW);
SPI.transfer(fontArray[displayData]); // SCK to SRCLK, MOSI to Ser In, SSpin to SRCK, OE low, MRCLR High
digitalWrite (RCLKpin, HIGH);

byte fontArray[] = {
0b00111111, // 0   DP-g-f-e-d-c-b-a
0b00000110, // 1
etc
0b01101111, // 9
};

Segments:
a
f b
g
e c
d DP

Sorry I grabbed the wrong IC I also have the NPX 74HC595N,

See above then.

For that code does it matter where I plug in each segment? Is there a specific order? I figured each output on shift register looked for what bit was at it's corresponding position. So I send a byte in and on each leg if it is a 1 it turns high and if it is 0 it goes low? I am also reading tutorials aside from this post

Yes it matters.
Q7 goes to DP, 6 to G, 5 to F, etc.

TPIC6B595 - shift in 1, output goes low, sinks current from common anode display. Cannot source current (drive high), only sink (drive low).

74HC595 - shift in 1, output goes high, sources current to common cathode display.
Flip all the bits - then shift in 0, sinks current from common anode display.