I need help with which parts I will need for this project

Hi, I'm new here, my name is Flávio, I'm a Physics student at the State University of Feira de Santana. I was working on a project for some time with a colleague, the idea was to create a high-speed aircraft capable of guiding itself, it wouldn't be a quadcopter because we already have that and it kind of breaks the idea of ​​a "high-speed vehicle ". Anyway, the initial idea was to do something with basic controls using radio signal, but as I've always been interested in Arduino but never tried to do anything too complicated I came here to ask you which parts I need to use to have:
Remote connection, with a maximum of 800M to 1KM, receive images in real time even with low quality, know its position and angle, controls for multiple motors and servos.

Sorry if I'm asking a lot of things, but these are the parts that I've separated so far, and I would like to know if it's possible to work with them together, as for the code we'll do them ourselves without any problem about that.
Arduino Uno R3 (Or any other board that you guys can tell me since this one probably won't be able to supply so many modules at the same time)
Nrf24l01 2.4ghz (For the network, this is the part I'm most confused about if it is possible to use to connect to a websocket, by the way we have a high power network and with directed antennas it easily has 4KM+ range and since there shouldn't be anything between it and the antenna less than 1KM with an omnidirectional antenna this shouldn't be a problem I think)
ne6mv2 (GPS Module)
esp32 (As camera)
2x Brushless Motors (with a maximum use of 180W each)
4x servants
2x Stepper Motors

That's all I've saved so far, there are still some parts left, I know there are flight controls ready, but they are expensive, and it breaks the design idea, so which of these parts should I change so this can work together?

And yes the aircraft is big, so it should have enough thrust to carry the weight of it.

You can use a speedometer as well @fkronnos

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My idea was to use GPS to do this

The Arduino Uno will probably be too slow. I would recommend separating the video from the control and communications. The new Raspberry Pi Zero has a camera port and higher resolution than the ESP32CAM. Move the control and communications to an ESP32 which already has WiFi for you to connect to a websocket.

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I'll get the ESP32 with camera for now, even though this increases bandwidth usage, communications should just be flight path commands and aircraft reports, real-time control shouldn't be used in long range just for landing and takeoff in the future I'll try to buy a Raspberry Pi Zero, but at the moment it's a little expensive, ~100$ with shipping, which along with the rest of the project is a bit bad for my budget.

You need to check the regulatory requirements in you country, this type aircraft likely requires some type of licensing or registration.

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Yeah probably, I'm already checking it out.

That should make your work go faster. :expressionless: (servos?)

But I write to ask what kind of aircraft you have selected.

Not a quadcopter leaves a few choices.

How much will it weigh? How fast is fast? What kind of flight times are you hoping to achieve?


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Were you intending to use the NRF24 for the video, maximum packet size is only 32 bytes so it aint that suited to moving lots of data around ?

For very good reasons most all 'drones' use analogue video transmitters.

The ESP32CAM can stream video via WiFi, but 1km is a big ask for (legal) Wifi. The ESP32CAM is fairly short of IO pins for doing other stuff.

I have written some code for using LoRa in FLRC mode (1300kbps) for getting pictures back from a ESP32CAM, but even at low res its going to be not many frames a second.

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Currently it's literally an airplane, we've designed more than one design, the main one at the moment is a flying wing, the flight time is not meant to be long, just a few minutes something like 25-30 minutes of flight time with a 10k mah battery or more (it shouldn't be used completely in a single flight anyway), the idea of ​​the project is to make it move on its own using "check points" with the GPS system, as for the camera if necessary it may not transmit anything at all, just a recording for later review is enough so maybe I'll look for a model with SD card.

In addition to the connection, the idea is to use a wireless internet service that already exists, which also serves as a "LAN" since everyone goes through the same geteway, it is possible to connect any device within the network, we have some antennas with very large range, but I'm not sure how much, the most I've seen them used was for 6mb connections at ~8 - 10 KM distance
Even so, if it is not possible to achieve these ranges, still preferring to perform some tests in open field with a maximum range of 100 to 200 meters with a normal transmitter just to be able to do the tests.

OK thanks.

You may have the payload budget to fly a good camera with SD recording, and use that camera as input to a transmitter.

GoPro for example can be used this way.

You might fly two cameras, one for seeing where you are going and one to take good pictures or videos of whatever you are trying to look at.

Will you need/want to change the camera orientation in flight?

And just to be sure, you will always have a means to take control,of the vehicle from the ground? I only ask because on these very fora there are cases of plans for autonomous aircraft without the possibility of ground control.


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The idea is that it controls itself, but in case of emergency it can receive input from the controller, this is exactly one of the reasons I want to have a connection with it all the time, even if it can fly alone you never know what that can happen, a collision due to strong winds is something that should always be taken into account for example, besides I can't say that the code will work perfectly, it may just get lost and fly away because of some code bug, or equipment malfunction.

It currently has 105cm wingspan (each wing is 60CM), so I think I can find space for two side cameras, plus the two engines should have more than enough thrust to lift them in the air.

Nice. You can get good 3D pictures and movies.

You can get 3D using just one camera, but it takes a bit of planning. The basic idea is to use two frames from a continuous recording that were taken at two different times, so your separation is how far the vehicle has travelled.

It is made easier if the direction of motion is perpendicular to the vertical axis of your desired shot.

Done right, this same idea can be used for 3D movies - left eye gets one copy, right eye gets a delayed copy. The delay can be adjusted to increase or decrease the separation and therefor how much 3D.

All done in post-flight processing.


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Yes, that can make some really cool ones, however I hope I can make it stable enough for that.

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