IDE Tools Options

This is mostly a curisoity question. I see lots of various settings in the Tools tab that changes with the selected board type. But my question is, where are all of these settings described? If you are developing an embedded controller using the Atmega chip and flashing code via the Arduino IDE, then you probably already know the use of the settings in Tools.

But for the casual user, and especially the newbies, is there a concise description of the settings? What they are for, when to change the defaults- or not? How to use them? (The "Debug" settings are of particular interest to me).

As I said, lots of googling provides many answers, but I am wondering if there is a single concise collection somewhere?

Those are custom menus added by the hardware package of the selected board. If you're seeing lots of settings then you're probably using a 3rd party hardware package and there would be no way to provide a single source of documentation for all the 3rd party packages. You should look to their documentation for answers. I suspect by your mention of a Debug menu that you're talking about ESP8266. Unfortunately yhey don't provide much if any documentation for these options, though I'm not sure about the Debug menu in specific.