IR sensor output danger

hello i was wondering if this sensor could possibly damage my UNO R2 board through a voltage/current overload


Nope, can't see how that would happen. You could, however, damage the sensor if you hook it up to your Uno and drive it as an output. For that reason, I'd recommend a 220 ohm resistor (or so) in series with the output of your sensor and the input pin on the Uno.

-- The Gadget Shield: accelerometer, RGB LED, IR transmit/receive, speaker, microphone, light sensor, potentiometer, pushbuttons

That cannot damage your board but as said earlier that your sensor can get damaged so 220 ohm will be better with sensor but for what i posted is that i think(i might be wrong) that you should keep track of resistor value with your sensor, as it will be effecting the power of IR.