Hi, I am just wondering if an ultrasound sensor can collect the data of how much sound is being absorb or reflected from a surface or if there is a better sensor for that
No ultra sound can not do that.
What you are trying to do is best done with a speaker and microphone, but it will need calibration and will only work at fixed distances.
I would not do it with an Arduino... When I built my studio I used one of my microphones (at a fixed distance) and two speakers that did a frequency sweep. The computer then analyzes it all (there is a Pro Tools VST plugin that does that, but I can't remember what it is called).
Maybe this can be done with a raspberry pie 3 but I doubt it would work with an arduino...
You know that different frequencies will reflect different amounts depending on what reflects them?
Ultrasonic devices use piezo disks to send and receive. The distance sensors are only wired for distance, you may have to make your own pickups.
Good piezo disks are extremely sensitive, search Youtube for Ants, Amplified